什么是云计算?

入门指南

Simply put, cloud computing is the delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence—over the Internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale. You typically pay only for cloud services you use, helping you lower your operating costs, run your infrastructure more efficiently, and scale as your business needs change.

云计算的最大优点

Cloud computing is a big shift from the traditional way businesses think about IT resources. Here are seven common reasons organizations are turning to cloud computing services:

费用

Cloud computing eliminates the capital expense of buying hardware and software and setting up and running on-site datacenters—the racks of servers, the round-the-clock electricity for power and cooling, and the IT experts for managing the infrastructure. It adds up fast.

速度

大多数云计算服务作为按需自助服务提供,因此通常只需点击几下鼠标,即可在数分钟内调配海量计算资源,赋予企业非常大的灵活性,并消除了容量规划的压力。

全局缩放

The benefits of cloud computing services include the ability to scale elastically. In cloud speak, that means delivering the right amount of IT resources—for example, more or less computing power, storage, bandwidth—right when they’re needed, and from the right geographic location.

工作效率

现场数据中心通常需要大量“机架和堆栈”- 硬件设置、软件补丁和其他费时的 IT 管理事务。云计算避免了这些任务中的大部分,让 IT 团队可以把时间用来实现更重要的业务目标。

性能

最大的云计算服务在安全数据中心的全球网络上运行,该网络会定期升级到最新的快速而高效的计算硬件。与单个企业数据中心相比,它能提供多项益处,包括降低应用程序的网络延迟和提高缩放的经济性。

可靠性

云计算能够以较低费用简化数据备份、灾难恢复和实现业务连续性,因为可以在云提供商网络中的多个冗余站点上对数据进行镜像处理。

安全性

许多云提供商都提供了广泛的用于提高整体安全情况的策略、技术和控件,这些有助于保护数据、应用和基础结构免受潜在威胁。

云计算类型

Not all clouds are the same and not one type of cloud computing is right for everyone. Several different models, types, and services have evolved to help offer the right solution for your needs.

First, you need to determine the type of cloud deployment, or cloud computing architecture, that your cloud services will be implemented on. There are three different ways to deploy cloud services: on a public cloud, private cloud, or hybrid cloud.

公有云

公有云为第三方云服务提供商所拥有和运营,他们通过 Internet 提供其计算资源(如服务器和存储空间)。Microsoft Azure 是公有云的一个示例。在公有云中,所有硬件、软件和其他支持性基础结构均为云提供商所拥有和管理。使用 Web 浏览器访问这些服务和管理你的帐户。

私有云

私有云是指专供一个企业或组织使用的云计算资源。私有云可以实际位于公司的现场数据中心之上。某些公司还向第三方服务提供商付费托管其私有云。在私有云中,在专用网络上维护服务和基础结构。

混合云

混合云组合了公有云和私有云,通过允许在这二者之间共享数据和应用程序的技术将它们绑定到一起。混合云允许数据和应用程序在私有云和公共云之间移动,使你能够更灵活地处理业务并提供更多部署选项,有助于你优化现有基础结构、安全性和符合性。

云服务类型:IaaS、PaaS、无服务器和 SaaS

大多数云计算服务都可归为四大类:基础结构即服务 (IaaS)、平台即服务 (PaaS)、无服务器和软件即服务 (SaaS)。它们有时候称为云计算堆栈,因为它们互为构建基础。了解这些服务及它们之间的差异,可使你更轻松地实现业务目标。

  • 基础结构即服务 (IaaS)

    The most basic category of cloud computing services. With IaaS, you rent IT infrastructure—servers and virtual machines (VMs), storage, networks, operating systems—from a cloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis

    Learn more about IaaS
  • 平台即服务 (PaaS)

    Platform as a service refers to cloud computing services that supply an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering, and managing software applications. PaaS is designed to make it easier for developers to quickly create web or mobile apps, without worrying about setting up or managing the underlying infrastructure of servers, storage, network, and databases needed for development.

    Learn more about PaaS
  • 无服务器计算

    Overlapping with PaaS, serverless computing focuses on building app functionality without spending time continually managing the servers and infrastructure required to do so. The cloud provider handles the setup, capacity planning, and server management for you. Serverless architectures are highly scalable and event-driven, only using resources when a specific function or trigger occurs.

    Learn more about serverless computing
  • 软件即服务 (SaaS)

    Software as a service is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand and typically on a subscription basis. With SaaS, cloud providers host and manage the software application and underlying infrastructure, and handle any maintenance, like software upgrades and security patching. Users connect to the application over the Internet, usually with a web browser on their phone, tablet, or PC.

    Learn more about SaaS

使用云计算

You’re probably using cloud computing right now, even if you don’t realize it. If you use an online service to send email, edit documents, watch movies or TV, listen to music, play games, or store pictures and other files, it’s likely that cloud computing is making it all possible behind the scenes. The first cloud computing services are barely a decade old, but already a variety of organizations—from tiny startups to global corporations, government agencies to non-profits—are embracing the technology for all sorts of reasons.

Here are a few examples of what’s possible today with cloud services from a cloud provider:

  • 创建新应用和服务

    在任何平台上快速构建、部署和缩放应用程序(Web、移动和 API)。访问所需资源,帮助满足性能、安全性和符合性要求。

  • 构建并测试应用程序

    使用可轻松纵向扩展或缩减的云基础结构,降低应用程序开发的成本并节省时间。

  • 存储、备份和恢复数据

    通过 Internet 将数据传输到可从任何位置和任何设备访问的离线云存储系统,可降低保护数据的成本(大规模缩放时)。

  • 分析数据

    在云中跨团队、部门和位置统一数据。然后使用云服务(例如机器学习和人工智能)发掘见解,做出更明智的决策。

  • 对音频和视频进行流传输

    借助全球分布的高清视频和音频,可从任何设备随时随地与你的受众建立联系。

  • 嵌入智能

    使用智能模型有助于吸引客户并能从捕获到的数据中发现有价值的见解。

  • 按需交付软件

    按需软件,也称为软件即服务 (SaaS),可随时随地为客户提供最新的软件版本和更新。

Microsoft 和云计算

Microsoft is a leading global provider of cloud computing services for businesses of all sizes. To learn more about the Microsoft cloud platform, our serverless application platform, and how Microsoft Azure compares to other cloud providers, see What is Azure? and Azure vs. AWS.