Authorization in a web app using Azure AD application roles & role claims
services: active-directory platforms: dotnet
This sample shows how to build an MVC web application that uses Azure AD Application Roles for authorization. Authorization in Azure AD can also be done with Azure AD Groups, as shown in WebApp-GroupClaims-DotNet. This sample uses the OpenID Connect ASP.Net OWIN middleware and ADAL .Net.
For more information about how the protocols work in this scenario and other scenarios, see Authentication Scenarios for Azure AD.
Looking for previous versions of this code sample? Check out the tags on the releases GitHub page.
About the Sample
This MVC 5 web application is a simple "Task Tracker" application that allows users to create, read, update, and delete tasks. Within the application, access to certain functionality is restricted to subsets of users. For instance, not every user has the ability to create a task.
This kind of authorization is implemented using role based access control (RBAC). When using RBAC, an administrator grants permissions to roles, not to individual users or groups. The administrator can then assign roles to different users and groups to control who has access to what content and functionality.
This application implements RBAC using Azure AD's Application Roles & Role Claims features. Another approach is to use Azure AD Groups and Group Claims, as shown in WebApp-GroupClaims-DotNet. Azure AD Groups and Application Roles are by no means mutually exclusive - they can be used in tandem to provide even finer grained access control.
Our Task Tracker application defines four Application Roles: - Admin: Has the ability to perform all actions, as well as manage the Application Roles. - Writer: Has the ability to create tasks. - Approver: Has the ability to change the status of tasks. - Observer: Only has the ability to view tasks and their statuses.
These application roles are defined in the Azure Management Portal on the application registration page. When a user signs into the application, AAD emits a Role Claim for each role that has been granted based on the user and their group membership. Assignment of users and groups to roles can be done through the portal's UI, or programmatically using the AAD Graph API. In this sample, application role management is done through the Azure Portal.
Using RBAC with Application Roles and Role Claims, this application securely enforces authorization policies with minimal effort on the part of the developer.
NOTE: Role claims are not currently emitted in SAML tokens, only JWTs (see issue #1).
NOTE: Role claims are not currently emitted for guest users in a tenant (see issue #2).
How to build the sample?
This sample is already registered in a Microsoft tenant as a multi-tenant application. Therefore you can run it in two different ways, depending on your business needs: - as a Multi-Tenant app (case 1). This requires little changes to the application itself, but there are contraints on the type of user. - as a Single-Tenant app (case 2).
For more details about when you want to use a single tenant or a multi-tenant application, see the "configuring multi-tenant applications" paragraph of Integrating applications with Azure Active Directory
To run this sample you will need: - Visual Studio 2015 or later. You can also use older versions of Visual Studio (we explain below the line of configuration to change) - An Internet connection - An Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) tenant. For more information on how to get an Azure AD tenant, please see How to get an Azure AD tenant - A user account in your Azure AD tenant. In the first case (run as a multi-tenant application), this sample will not work with a Microsoft Personal account, so if you signed in to the Azure portal with a Microsoft account and have never created a user account in your directory before, you need to do that now. You can use the Azure Management Portal to create users, as explained in Add new users or users with Microsoft accounts to Azure Active Directory. Alternatively, you can add a user with the Azure Portal. In that case be sure to give to a user an email address with the domain of your tenant (for instance email@example.com) so that this is not a guest MSA account.
Step 1: Clone or download this repository
From your shell or command line:
git clone https://github.com/Azure-Samples/active-directory-dotnet-webapp-authz-roleclaims.git
Step 2: If you use Visual Studio 2013 or earlier, update the connection string
If you are using Visual Studio 2015 or later, the sample will run as is. If you are using Visual Studio 2013 or earlier, you will need to change the
Data Source portion of the
connectionString in the
Web.Config file from
Data Source=(LocalDb)\MSSQLLocalDB; to
Data Source=(LocalDb)\v11.0; The line should therefore be something like this:
<add name="RoleClaimContext" connectionString="Data Source=(LocalDb)\v11.0;Initial Catalog=WebApp_RoleClaims_DotNet;Integrated Security=SSPI;AttachDBFilename=|DataDirectory|\WebApp_RoleClaims_DotNet.mdf;" providerName="System.Data.SqlClient" />
Case 1: How to run the sample as a Multi-Tenant App
As this sample application is already registered in a Microsoft tenant as a multi-tenant application, you can run out of the box with your tenant by following these steps:
- In Visual Studio, find the tenant key
Web.Configfile) and replace the value with the domain of your tenant. Do not change the other keys.
- Run the app in Visual Studio and sign in as a user in your AAD tenant, granting consent when prompted to do so.
- NOTE: you can't use an MSA guest user account to sign in - it must be a user that you created in your tenant as explained above.
- At that point, once you have granted consent, if you go to the "Tasks" menu command, you will see "You do not have sufficient privileges to view this page". This is normal, because we have not assigned any role to users in your directory yet. That's the goal of next steps (3 to 5).
- In the Azure management portal, navigate to your tenant by clicking on Active Directory in the left hand nav and selecting the appropriate tenant. Note that if you choose to use the azure portal instead, you would find the provisioned application under Enterprise applications and you would have to adapt these steps slightly.
- Click the "Applications" tab, and locate the newly created entry for "WebApp-RoleClaims-DotNet." Click on it.
- On the following page, click on the "Users" tab. Select any user, click the "Assign" button in the bottom tray, and assign the user to an Application Role. Repeat this process for any users you would like to have access to Tasks in the application.
- Sign out of the sample application and sign back in.
Explore the application by assigning various users and groups to roles via Azure Portal. Login as users in different roles, and notice the differences in functionality available to each. Each role has different capabilities on the "Tasks" page, as described above.
Case 2: How To run The sample as a Single-Tenant App
This section explains how to register the application as a single tenant application in your own tenant, rather than in a Microsoft tenant like in the previous section
Step 1: Register the sample with your Azure Active Directory tenant
- Sign in to the Azure portal.
- On the top bar, click on your account and under the Directory list, choose the Active Directory tenant where you wish to register your application.
- Click on More Services in the left hand nav, and choose Azure Active Directory.
- Click on App registrations and choose Add.
- Enter a friendly name for the application, for example 'TaskTrackerWebApp' and select 'Web Application and/or Web API' as the Application Type. For the sign-on URL, enter the base URL for the sample, which is by default
https://localhost:44322/. NOTE: It is important, due to the way Azure AD matches URLs, to ensure there is a trailing slash on the end of this URL. If you don't include the trailing slash, you will receive an error when the application attempts to redeem an authorization code. Click on Create to create the application.
- While still in the Azure portal, choose your application, click on Settings and choose Properties.
- Find the Application ID value and copy it to the clipboard.
- On the same page, change the
Logout Urlfield to
https://localhost:44322/Account/EndSession. This is the default single sign out URL for this sample.
- For the App ID URI, enter
<your_tenant_name>with the name of your Azure AD tenant and
<your_application_name>with the name you chose above.
- From the Settings menu, choose Keys and add a key - select a key duration of either 1 year or 2 years. When you save this page, the key value will be displayed, copy and save the value in a safe location - you will need this key later to configure the project in Visual Studio - this key value will not be displayed again, nor retrievable by any other means, so please record it as soon as it is visible from the Azure Portal.
- Configure Permissions for your application - in the Settings menu, choose the 'Required permissions' section, click on Add, then Select an API, and select 'Microsoft Graph' (this is the Graph API). Then, click on Select Permissions and select 'Read Directory Data' and 'Sign in and read user profile'.
Step 2: Define your Application Roles
- While still in the blade for your application, click Manifest.
- Edit the manifest by locating the
appRolessetting and adding all four Application Roles. The role definitions are provided in the JSON block below. Leave the allowedMemberTypes to "User" only. Each role definition in this manifest must have a different valid Guid for the "id" property. Note that the
"value"property of each role is set to the exact strings "Admin", "Approver", "Observer", and "Writer" (as these strings are used in the code in the application). To do this replacement in the manifest, you have two options:
- Option 1: Edit the manifest in place by clicking Edit, replacing the appRoles value, and then clicking Save.
- Option 2: Download the manifest to your computer, edit it with your favorite text editor, save a copy of it, and Upload this copy. You might want to choose this option if you want to keep track of the history of the manifest.
The content of
appRoles should be the following (the
ìd can be any unique GUID)
"description": "Writers Have the ability to create tasks.",
"description": "Observers only have the ability to view tasks and their statuses.",
"description": "Approvers have the ability to change the status of tasks.",
"description": "Admins can manage roles and perform all task actions.",
Step 3: Configure the sample to use your Azure AD tenant
- Open the solution in Visual Studio.
- Open the
- Find the app key
ida:ClientIdand replace the value with the Application ID for the application from the Azure portal.
- Find the app key
ida:AppKeyand replace the value with the key for the application from the Azure portal.
- Find the app key
ida:Tenantand replace the value with the domain of your tenant.
- If you changed the base URL of the TodoListWebApp sample, find the app key
ida:PostLogoutRedirectUriand replace the value with the new base URL of the sample.
Startup.Auth.cs, uncomment the first line:
// #define SingleTenantApp. Indeed, the code you cloned corresponds to the multi-tenant version of the sample. We use conditional compilation to include or exclude the corresponding lines of code which are marked by comments. The effect of uncommenting this first line will be to change the value for the
Authorityto the single-tenant version, and omit the line relating to
Step 4: Run the sample
Clean the solution, rebuild the solution, and run it! Explore the sample by signing in, navigating to different pages, adding tasks, signing out, etc. Create several user accounts in the Azure Management Portal, and assign them different roles by navigating to the "Users" tab of your application in the Azure Portal. Create a Security Group in the Azure Management Portal, add users to it, and again add roles to it using an Admin account. Explore the differences between each role throughout the application, namely the Tasks page.
Deploy this Sample to Azure
To deploy this application to Azure, you will publish it to an Azure Website.
- Sign in to the Azure portal.
- Click New in the top left hand corner, select Web + Mobile --> Web App, select the hosting plan and region, and give your web site a name, e.g. todolistservice-contoso.azurewebsites.net. Click Create Web Site.
- Once the web site is created, click on it to manage it. For this set of steps, download the publish profile and save it. Other deployment mechanisms, such as from source control, can also be used.
- While still in the Azure portal, navigate back to the Azure AD tenant you used in creating this sample. Under applications, select your Task Tracker application. From the Settings page, update the Sign-On URL and Reply URL fields to the root address of your published application, for example https://tasktracker-contoso.azurewebsites.net/.
- Switch to Visual Studio and go to the WebApp-RoleClaims-DotNet project. In the web.config file, update the "PostLogoutRedirectUri" value to the root address of your published application as well.
- Right click on the project in the Solution Explorer and select Publish. Click Import, and import the publish profile that you just downloaded.
- On the Connection tab, update the Destination URL so that it is https, for example https://tasktracker-contoso.azurewebsites.net. Click Next.
- On the Settings tab, make sure Enable Organizational Authentication is NOT selected. Click Publish.
- Visual Studio will publish the project and automatically open a browser to the URL of the project. If you see the default web page of the project, the publication was successful.