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Calling Microsoft Graph from a web app using ADAL Python

Sidst opdateret: 01-08-2019
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About this sample


This sample demonstrates how to build a Python (Flask) web application that authorizes Azure Active Directory users and access data from the Microsoft Graph.

  1. The app uses the Active Directory Authentication Library (ADAL) to acquire a JWT access token for the Microsoft Graph.
  2. The app then uses the access token to get data about the user from the Microsoft Graph.

How to run this sample

To run this sample, you'll need:

Step 1. Clone or download this repository

From your shell or command line:

git clone

To avoid file name length limitations in Windows, clone the repo close to your root directory.

Step 2. Register the app

There is one project in this sample. To register it, you can:

If you want to use this automation: 1. On Windows run PowerShell and navigate to the root of the cloned directory 1. In PowerShell run: PowerShell Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned -Scope Process -Force 1. Run the script to create your Azure AD application and configure the code of the sample application accordingly. PowerShell .\AppCreationScripts\Configure.ps1 > Other ways of running the scripts are described in App Creation Scripts

Choose the Azure AD tenant where you want to create your applications

As a first step you'll need to:

  1. Sign in to the Azure portal using either a work or school account or a personal Microsoft account.
  2. If your account is present in more than one Azure AD tenant, select your profile at the top right corner in the menu on top of the page, and then switch directory. Change your portal session to the desired Azure AD tenant.

Register the webApp app (PythonWebApp)

  1. Navigate to the Microsoft identity platform for developers App registrations page.
  2. Select New registration.
  3. When the Register an application page appears, enter your application's registration information:
    • In the Name section, enter a meaningful application name that will be displayed to users of the app, for example PythonWebApp.
    • Leave Supported account types on the default setting of Accounts in this organizational directory only.
    • In the Redirect URI (optional) section, select Web in the combo-box and enter the following redirect URIs: http://localhost:5000/getAToken.
  4. Select Register to create the application.
  5. On the app Overview page, find the Application (client) ID value and record it for later. You'll need it to configure the Visual Studio configuration file for this project. <!-- 1. From the app's Overview page, select the Authentication section.
    • In the Advanced settings | Implicit grant section, check ID tokens as this sample requires the Implicit grant flow to be enabled to sign-in the user, and call an API.-->
  6. Select Save.
  7. From the Certificates & secrets page, in the Client secrets section, choose New client secret:

    • Type a key description (of instance app secret),
    • Select a key duration of either In 1 year, In 2 years, or Never Expires.
    • When you press the Add button, the key value will be displayed, copy, and save the value in a safe location.
    • You'll need this key later to configure the project in Visual Studio. This key value will not be displayed again, nor retrievable by any other means, so record it as soon as it is visible from the Azure portal.
  8. Select the API permissions section

    • Click the Add a permission button and then,
    • Ensure that the Microsoft APIs tab is selected
    • In the Commonly used Microsoft APIs section, click on Microsoft Graph
    • In the Delegated permissions section, ensure that the right permissions are checked: User.Read. Use the search box if necessary.
    • Select the Add permissions button

Step 3: Configure the sample to use your Azure AD tenant

In the steps below, "ClientID" is the same as "Application ID" or "AppId".

Open the file to configure the project

Configure the webApp project

Note: if you used the setup scripts, the changes below will have been applied for you

  1. Open the file
  2. Find the app key TENANT and replace the existing value with your Azure AD tenant name.
  3. Find the app key CLIENT_SECRET and replace the existing value with the key you saved during the creation of the PythonWebApp app, in the Azure portal.
  4. Find the app key CLIENT_ID and replace the existing value with the application ID (clientId) of the PythonWebApp application copied from the Azure portal.

Step 4. Run the sample

  • You will need to install Flask framework and the ADAL Python library using pip as follows:
  $ pip install flask
  $ pip install adal
  • If the environment variable for Flask is already set:

Run from shell or command line:

  $ python
  • If the environment variable for Flask is not set:

Type the following commands on shell or command line by navigating to the project directory:

  $ export
  $ export FLASK_DEBUG=1
  $ flask run

Follow the sign-in process to complete the logging.

About the code

The code acquiring a token is located in file. The sample first starts sign in by redirecting the application from @app.route("/") to @app.route("/login"). It forms an authorization url that goes to the Authorization endpoint here:

authorization_url = TEMPLATE_AUTHZ_URL.format(
resp = Response(status=307)
resp.headers['location']= authorization_url
return resp

After the user logs in, the authorization code is used acquire a token in @app.route("/getAToken"). The AuthenticationContext is created here:

auth_context = AuthenticationContext(AUTHORITY_URL, api_version=None)

The acquire_token_with_authorization_code() function requests for an access token using the authorization code here:

token_response = auth_context.acquire_token_with_authorization_code(code,REDIRECT_URI,config.RESOURCE, config.CLIENT_ID, config.CLIENT_SECRET)

This token is then used to call the Graph API in @app.route("/graphcall"):

graph_data = SESSION.get(endpoint,headers = http_headers, stream=False).json()

How to deploy this sample to Azure

This project has one WebApp / Web API projects. To deploy them to Azure Web Sites, you'll need, for each one, to:

  • create an Azure Web Site
  • publish the Web App / Web APIs to the web site, and
  • update its client(s) to call the web site instead of IIS Express.

Create and publish the PythonWebApp to an Azure Web Site

  1. Sign in to the Azure portal.
  2. Click Create a resource in the top left-hand corner, select Web --> Web App, and give your web site a name, for example,
  3. Thereafter select the Subscription, Resource Group, App service plan and Location. OS will be Windows and Publish will be Code.
  4. Click Create and wait for the App Service to be created.
  5. Once you get the Deployment succeeded notification, then click on Go to resource to navigate to the newly created App service.
  6. Once the web site is created, locate in the Dashboard and click it to open App Services Overview screen.

Update the Active Directory tenant application registration for PythonWebApp

  1. Navigate back to to the Azure portal. In the left-hand navigation pane, select the Azure Active Directory service, and then select App registrations.
  2. In the resultant screen, select the PythonWebApp application.
  3. From the Branding menu, update the Home page URL, to the address of your service, for example Save the configuration.
  4. Add the same URL in the list of values of the Authentication -> Redirect URIs menu. If you have multiple redirect urls, make sure that there a new entry using the App service's Uri for each redirect url.

Community Help and Support

Use Stack Overflow to get support from the community. Ask your questions on Stack Overflow first and browse existing issues to see if someone has asked your question before. Make sure that your questions or comments are tagged with [adal python].

If you find a bug in the sample, please raise the issue on GitHub Issues.

To provide a recommendation, visit the following User Voice page.


If you'd like to contribute to this sample, see CONTRIBUTING.MD.

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct. For more information, see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact with any additional questions or comments.

More information

For more information about how OAuth 2.0 protocols work in this scenario and other scenarios, see Authentication Scenarios for Azure AD.