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Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption is the most commonly used method of securing data sent across the internet. This common task discusses how to specify an HTTPS endpoint for a web role and how to upload an SSL certificate to secure your application.
The procedures in this task apply to Azure Cloud Services; for Websites, see Configuring an SSL certificate for an Azure website.
This task will use a production deployment; information on using a staging deployment is provided at the end of this topic.
To configure SSL for an application, you first need to get an SSL certificate that has been signed by a Certificate Authority (CA), a trusted third-party who issues certificates for this purpose. If you do not already have one, you will need to obtain one from a company that sells SSL certificates.
The certificate must meet the following requirements for SSL certificates in Azure:
For test purposes, you can create and use a self-signed certificate. A self-signed certificate is not authenticated through a CA and can use the cloudapp.net domain as the website URL. For example, the task below uses a self-signed certificate in which the common name (CN) used in the certificate is sslexample.cloudapp.net. For details about how to create a self-signed certificate using IIS Manager, See How to create a certificate for a role.
Next, you must include information about the certificate in your service definition and service configuration files.
Your application must be configured to use the certificate, and an HTTPS endpoint must be added. As a result, the service definition and service configuration files need to be updated.
In your development environment, open the service definition file (CSDEF), add a Certificates section within the WebRole section, and include the following information about the certificate:
<WebRole name="CertificateTesting" vmsize="Small"> ... <Certificates> <Certificate name="SampleCertificate" storeLocation="LocalMachine" storeName="CA" /> </Certificates> ... </WebRole>
The Certificates section defines the name of our certificate, its location, and the name of the store where it is located. We have chosen to store the certificate in the CA (Certificate Authority)tore, but you can choose other options as well. See How to associate a certificate with a service for more information.
In your service definition file, add an InputEndpoint element within the Endpoints section to enable HTTPS:
<WebRole name="CertificateTesting" vmsize="Small"> ... <Endpoints> <InputEndpoint name="HttpsIn" protocol="https" port="443" certificate="SampleCertificate" /> </Endpoints> ... </WebRole>
In your service definition file, add a Binding element within the Sites section. This adds an HTTPS binding to map the endpoint to your site:
<WebRole name="CertificateTesting" vmsize="Small"> ... <Sites> <Site name="Web"> <Bindings> <Binding name="HttpsIn" endpointName="HttpsIn" /> </Bindings> </Site> </Sites> ... </WebRole>
All of the required changes to the service definition file have been completed, but you still need to add the certificate information to the service configuration file.
In your service configuration file (CSCFG), ServiceConfiguration.Cloud.cscfg, add a Certificates section within the Role section, replacing the sample thumbprint value shown below with that of your certificate:
<Role name="Deployment"> ... <Certificates> <Certificate name="SampleCertificate" thumbprint="9427befa18ec6865a9ebdc79d4c38de50e6316ff" thumbprintAlgorithm="sha1" /> </Certificates> ... </Role>
(The example above uses sha1 for the thumbprint algorithm. Specify the appropriate value for your certificate's thumbprint algorithm.)
Now that the service definition and service configuration files have been updated, package your deployment for uploading to Azure. If you are using cspack, ensure that you don't use the /generateConfigurationFile flag, as that will overwrite the certificate information you just inserted.
Your deployment package has been updated to use the certificate, and an HTTPS endpoint has been added. Now you can upload the package and certificate to Azure with the Management Portal.
In the Publish your cloud service dialog, enter the required information for your cloud service, select Production for the environment, and ensure Add certificates now is checked. (If any of your roles contain a single instance, ensure Deploy even if one or more roles contain a single instance is checked.)
Click the Next button.
In the Add Certificate dialog, enter the location for the SSL certificate .pfx file, the password for the certificate, and click attach certificate.
Ensure your certificate is listed in the Attached Certificates section.
Click the Complete button to create your cloud service. When the deployment has reached the Ready status, you can proceed to the next steps.
Now that your deployment is up and running in Azure, you can connect to it using HTTPS.
In the Management Portal, select your deployment, then click the link under Site URL.
In your web browser, modify the link to use https instead of http, and then visit the page.
Note: If you are using a self-signed certificate, when you browse to an HTTPS endpoint that's associated with the self-signed certificate you will see a certificate error in the browser. Using a certificate signed by a trusted certification authority will eliminate this problem; in the meantime, you can ignore the error. (Another option is to add the self-signed certificate to the user's trusted certificate authority certificate store.)
If you want to use SSL for a staging deployment instead of a production deployment, you'll first need to determine the URL used for the staging deployment. Deploy your cloud service to the staging environment without including a certificate or any certificate information. Once deployed, you can determine the GUID-based URL, which is listed in the management portal's Site URL field. Create a certificate with the common name (CN) equal to the GUID-based URL (for example, 32818777-6e77-4ced-a8fc-57609d404462.cloudapp.net), use the management portal to add the certificate to your staged cloud service, add the certificate information to your CSDEF and CSCFG files, repackage your application, and update your staged deployment to use the new package and CSCFG file.